OVERHEAD CONSTRUCTION
POLE ERECTION - MANUAL


Click here for Overhead Construction Menu

Click here for a Pole Erection Party in action using Lifters and Ladders

P.O. ENGINEERING DEPT
ENGINEERING INSTRUCTIONS
LINES
OVERHEAD
C3201
Issue 1, 12.11.37
Issue 5, 18.2.65

POLING
Erection and Setting of Poles

1. General
This Instruction details the method to be adopted when erecting and setting poles. "Extra Light" poles, and "Light" and "Medium" poles up to 30ft. in length, should generally be erected by means of "Lifters, Pole". Heavier poles - up to 45ft. in length - should generally be erected by means of ladders, with or without the additional use of pole lifters, and poles of 50ft. and over by the use of a derrick.

2. No rigid rule can, however, be laid down as to the sizes which should be erected by one method or by another. The position in which the pole is to be erected should have consideration in determining the method to be used. For instance, on replacement work where the existing pole is suitable for use as a derrick, a saving in labour can sometimes be made by using the derrick method for a pole which would otherwise be raised by means of ladders.

3. Equipment
The equipment required for the erection and setting of poles which are raised without the use of derricks is detailed in paras. 5 to 18. Other items of equipment, required when a derrick is used, are dealt with in paras. 19 to 21.

4. Care should be taken to ensure that all equipment used in pole erection is in a sound condition, and of adequate strength for the work in hand. Particulars of safe working loads for various sizes of rope are given in TOOLS AND TRANSPORT, Mechanical Aids, B 1002, and details of the mechanical advantage obtained by various arrangements of blocks and tackle and the stress on the different parts, in TOOLS AND TRANSPORT, Mechanical Aids, B 1005. The weights of wood poles are given in C 1101 and on Card TE 706.

FIG. 1 - POLE CART

5. Pole Cart
A pole cart, illustrated in Fig. 1, will generally be required to shift the pole to the pole hole. Where conditions permit, further use should be made of the pole cart during erection of the pole, as described in para. 25. When dealing with poles of the smaller sizes, transport can often be provided satisfactorily by a "Handcart, Open, Strong" (used to carry tools, etc.), and the pole cart can then be omitted from the equipment.

6. Pole Sliding Boards facilitate the erection of poles in 'stepped' holes. They act as a guide and provide a smooth surface down which the butt of the pole slides without displacing soil, ,etc., into the bottom of the hole.

7. The boards, which should be obtained locally, should be made from best-quality pitch pine, free from shakes or other defects, and painted with one coat of wood priming and two coats of lead colour ; well-seasoned elm or ash may be used if pitch pine is not readily available. For poling generally, plain boards, 7 ft. x 10¾in. x 1½in., will suffice. For protection, the ends of these plain boards should be bound with hoop-iron. For the erection of long or heavy poles, the boards may be reinforced by strips of 1½in. dia., half-round wrought iron, placed lengthways on the front of the boards at 6½in. centres, and secured by 1½in. No. 14 countersunk screws at 8in. intervals. Four cross-pieces of wrought iron, 2in. x 3/8in. x 10¾in., should be secured by means of 1½in. No. 14 screws to the back of the board, two being placed at the extreme ends and two at 1 ft. from the ends. Hand-holes, 2in. x 5in., may be cut 3½in. from each end.

8. Pole Lifters (Fig. 2), for use in the erection of poles in cylindrical holes and in the earlier stages of the erection of heavier poles, are made in four lengths, viz :-10, 12, 14 and 16 ft. If preferred, stout ladders of suitable lengths may be used instead of the lifters, the latter being entirely dispensed with. When a heavy pole is being raised, pole lifters should be used only in conjunction with ladders; the lifters should not be relied upon to take the weight of the pole.



FIG. 2 - POLE LIFTERS

9. A "Handle, Lifter, Pole"
This is to be requisitioned separately and is required with each pole lifter. The handle should be secured to the shaft, with the grip uppermost and parallel with the plane of the fork, as shown in Fig. 2, at the most convenient point for lifting; this will usually be approximately 2ft. 3in. from the lower end.

10. Ladders
The ladders used for pole erection should be of "stout" type; light ladders should not be used for this purpose. Stout ladders are provided with a wire rung at the top and bottom. When a wire rung is to be fitted locally, the method detailed in para. 11 and illustrated by Fig. 3 should be followed. A 1/2in. diameter hole should be bored in the centre of each stile, 3in. from the end of the ladder, to take the rung. Alternatively, holes from which a wood rung has been removed may be used, the stiles of the ladder being cut off 3in. above the holes.

FIG 3 - WIRE RUNG ON LADDER
(All dimensions are in inches)

11. Four 7ft. lengths of  "Wire, Galvd., Line, 400lb." are passed through the holes so that equal lengths project from either side of the ladder. Between the stiles, the wires are bent so as to provide a dip of 2in. in the middle of the rung. The free ends at each side are then wrapped tightly, in pairs, round the stiles - one pair 11 turns in one direction, and the other pair 11 turns in the opposite direction.

The two pairs at the inner side of one stile are brought together and wrapped closely and tightly, side by side, round the four centre wires to within 2in. of the other stile. The pair nearer this stile is then cut off and the ends pressed home, and the other pair unwrapped to within 2in. of the first stile and cut off. The two pairs at the opposite stile are then similarly wrapped in the remaining gaps, to meet the pairs first dealt with. Finally, the wires are cut and the ends pressed home so as to leave no gaps or sharp edges.

12. Pole Jacks
See TOOLS AND TRANSPORT, Mechanical Aids, B 1901 (when issued) - can be used to advantage in the raising of A-poles.

Pole Jack

13. "Line, Sash, No. 12" is normally used for guy lines. Sash line should not be relied upon, however, if failure of the guy line would involve risk of injury or damage; rope should always be used in such circumstances.

14. Rope
In addition to its use as a guy line, a rope secured to the head of a pole is, on replacement work, often helpful in raising the pole. A length of rope is also useful in twisting poles of medium weight.

15. "Twisters, Pole"
These consist of a length of 1/2in. wrought-iron chain, with a claw at one end and a large link at the other (Fig. 4). They are used, in conjunction with a crowbar, when it is necessary to twist a heavy pole after erection and before filling-in begins.

Issue 5 additional
The 1960 style of Twisters Pole are used in conjunction with a Crowbar No. 2.

FIG. 4 - POLE TWISTER (1937)
 

FIG. 4 - POLE TWISTER (1960)

16. "Crowbars, No. 1" are used during erection to guide the foot of the pole and, upon erection, when it is necessary to trim the hole or twist the pole to get it into the required position.

17. "Shovels, Gravel, No. 3" or "Spades, Trench", "Punners, Wood" (or "Punners, Iron" as preferred) and "Brooms, Bass" are the appropriate tools for filling-in. Digging bars - see para. 18 - are used instead of punners in cylindrical holes.

18. "Bars, Digging" 7ft. long, have one chisel end, and one punner end. They are used in cylindrical holes to act as a slide for the butt of the pole during erection and to consolidate the soil when filling-in, see paras. 23 and 50.



FIG. 5 - ERECTION OF POLE IN CYLINDRICAL HOLE

19. "Blocks, Double and Treble, 1in." and "Rope, Hemp, 3in." are required in derrick work for the main lifting tackle; "Chains, Sling, 4ft. or 6ft." and "Blocks, Snatch" are used in conjunction with this tackle. The sling chains are fitted with a small ring at one end and a larger ring at the other. The smaller ring passes through the larger ring ; no hook is required.

20. "Blocks, Single and Double", and "Rope, Hemp 2in." are generally used when luff tackle is required. "Winches, Crab" may be used in place of luff tackle, when convenient.

21. "Crowbars, No. 2"
These have one plain and one pointed end, for driving. They are generally required to anchor the luff tackle, or crab winch. They may also be required to secure the guy ropes supporting the derrick or pole. "Hammers, Sledge, 10lb." are used for driving the crowbars.

22. Erection. Poles set in Cylindrical Holes
EXTRA LIGHT poles, and LIGHT and MEDIUM poles up to 30ft. in length, which are generally set in cylindrical holes excavated as described in C 3176, present little difficulty in erection and the work can be performed satisfactorily with the aid of pole lifters or short ladders.

23. A digging bar should be placed against the side of the hole opposite to that from which a channel has been cut to receive the butt of the pole. To raise the pole to a vertical position, the butt should be placed in position in the channel and against the bar, and two men should place themselves one on each side of the pole in such a position that, when it is lifted, the pole is overbalanced towards the butt. Pole lifters or ladders should be used to assist in raising and to take the weight of the pole, as required. An illustration of this method of erection is shown in Fig. 5.

24. Erection. Poles set in stepped holes, using Lifters and Ladders
After the pole hole has been excavated as described in C 3175 (or, for A-poles, C 3251), the pole sliding board(s) should be placed vertically against the deep end of the hole. Guy lines should be attached to the top of the pole, to steady it, as required, until the hole is filled-in. The pole should be brought on the pole cart into position for raising, and the butt placed against the pole sliding board.

25. To raise the pole, the men should arrange themselves behind one another, in the order of the height of their shoulders, near the tip of the pole, and lift. As the top of the pole is raised, the pole cart should be moved forward towards the pole hole, to support the pole while the men move forward to lift again. This operation should be repeated until the pole is raised sufficiently to allow the pole lifters and/or ladders to be brought into use. By gradually working these towards the foot of the pole which, at the same time, should be assisted by means of a crowbar or punner to slide into the hole, the pole is then raised to a vertical position. The pole cart should be used, if possible, until the pole is raised clear, when the weight should be taken by the ladders.

26. In raising A-poles, assistance may be obtained by the use of a pole jack. The jack should be placed firmly on a stayblock (or on the "base-joist") so as to be inclined slightly towards the pole hole. It should be as far from the butt end of the pole as is practicable, additional stayblocks being used as required to adjust the height or provide a firm base. A heavy stayblock should be placed transversely between the jack and the pole, and the jack should be central with both pole and stayblock. The jack should be operated to lift simultaneously with the men using the ladders.

27. On replacement work where the new pole is to be set near the existing pole, erection may be facilitated if a rope, secured to the head of the pole for use as a guy line, is passed over an arm on the existing pole and used in conjunction with the ladders during the later stages of erection.

28. The use of a Derrick is normally required for long and/or heavy poles, i.e., generally, single poles over 45ft. and A-poles over 40ft. in length.

29. When such a pole is to be erected in a new situation, it is necessary to erect a temporary pole to serve as a derrick. A sound medium or stout pole, slightly longer than half the length of the pole to be erected, should be used ; e.g., a 30ft. derrick suffices for a 50ft. pole. The derrick pole should be set in the ground to a depth of at least 3ft. If the ground is at all soft, the derrick should rest on a block of timber at the bottom of the hole and the hole should be increased in depth so that the bottom of the derrick is at least 3ft. below the ground line.

30. On replacement work it is sometimes possible to use an existing pole as a derrick, but the pole should be examined to see that it is quite sound and capable of withstanding the stresses that may be put upon it.

31. Guy ropes or stays in three or four directions should be attached to the derrick pole. If more suitable facilities for attachment are not available, the guy ropes or stays should be secured to crowbars fixed in the ground, or to temporary stay-rods and blocks.

32. Two methods of erection by derrick are available, known as the "Middling" method and the "End-on" method. These are illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7. The method adopted should depend on the space available for the operation, but the "Middling" method is preferable and should be used where circumstances allow, as the stresses imposed upon the derrick pole are not so severe.



FIG. 6 - "MIDDLING" METHOD OF ERECTING HEAVY POLES

33. "Middling" method
The main pole should be laid with its point of balance close to the derrick pole. Blocks, double and treble, 1in. with 3in. rope should be used, the treble block being attached to the derrick pole by means of a sling chain as shown in Fig. 6. To prevent the sling chain from slipping down the pole, it should be attached above an arm. When a temporary derrick is used and it is necessary to fit an arm, the latter should be fitted 21in. from the top of the pole, i.e., in the position normally occupied by the second arm on permanent work. Adequate space above the arm will thus be provided for attachment of the tackle and temporary stays, and the arm slot will be in a position suitable for subsequent use.

34. The double block should be attached to the main pole by means of a sling chain, so fitted that when raised from the ground the pole will be slightly "butt heavy." Three or four guy lines should be attached to the main pole for the purpose of steadying it during the course of erection. A guy line, attached about 3ft. from the foot of the pole, will be found useful for controlling the butt while the pole is being raised. The pole should be raised gradually until the point of balance is sufficiently high to enable the pole to be swung into a vertical position, with the butt just clear of the ground. The pole sliding board should be placed vertically at the deep end of the hole, the butt guided into position over the hole, and the tackle run out to allow the pole to drop into place.

35. For specially-heavy poles, the running end from the main tackle should be brought down the derrick to a 1in. snatch block attached to the derrick near the ground line by means of a sling chain. The chain should be prevented from slipping upwards by a pole bracket ("Bracket, No. 7"), or a pole step inverted and secured to the pole by means of coach screws. After being passed through the snatch block, the main tackle rope should be attached by means of a "Single or Double Blackwall" hitch (see TOOLS AND TRANSPORT, Mechanical Aids, B 1003, when available) to the double block of a set of ¾in. single and double blocks with 2in. rope, known as the "luff" tackle, the single block of which is held in position by one or more crowbars driven into the ground or by other means if facilities for obtaining a secure hold exist, see Fig. 6.

36. If desired, a crab winch (described in TOOLS AND TRANSPORT, Mechanical Aids, B 1008) may be used in place of the lull tackle; when this is done, great care should be taken to anchor it securely to the ground.

37. "End-on" method
The main pole, still resting on the pole cart, should be placed with its butt against the sliding board. A sling chain should be attached to the pole, at a point slightly nearer the top than its point of balance. The main tackle should be of the same type and attached to the derrick pole in the same manner as for the "Middling" method, luff tackle or a crab winch being used in the same way. The pole should be gradually raised into the vertical position, the butt end being assisted to slide down the board. The precautions enumerated in paras. 34 and 35 should be observed. In addition, as the pole approaches the vertical, two of the guy lines should be held tight against the pull of the tackle, to prevent the pole from being pulled over beyond the vertical. The general arrangement is illustrated by Fig. 7.

FIG. 7 - "END-ON" METHOD OF ERECTING HEAVY POLES

38. The following points should be borne in mind in connexion with the erection of heavy poles:-

  1. During erection it may be necessary on one or more occasions to detach the main from the luff tackle for the purpose of opening out the rope of the latter. To prevent the slipping of the main rope when this is being done, a stopper of similar rope, firmly secured, should be used. A stopper hitch is made as described and illustrated in TOOLS AND TRANSPORT, Mechanical Aids, B 1003 (when available).

  2. The foot of the pole should be assisted, by the use of a crowbar or punner, to slide down the face of the pole sliding board during the first stages of erection.

  3. Two pieces of timber, about 6in. x 3in. and 3ft. longer than the pole hole, placed edgeways one along each side of the hole with their upper edges at ground level and their outer sides against the face of the hole, will prevent disturbance of the soil at the side of the hole during erection and serve as a guide by restricting lateral movement of the pole. Channels to accommodate these pieces of timber should be cut outward from the ends of the hole.

  4. In no circumstances should strand or single G.I. wire be used for attaching the double and treble blocks and snatch blocks to the pole and derrick; sling chains should always be used for this purpose.

  5. Blocks and ropes should be carefully examined before they are brought into use. If there is any doubt as to the reliability of the tackle, it should on no account be used, but should be replaced in accordance with standard procedure. Workmen should be instructed that rope is not to be allowed to lie in damp places or where it is exposed to the weather, and that the greatest care is to be taken to prevent deterioration.

  6. Wrought-iron chains have a tendency to become brittle after prolonged use. Procedure has therefore been devised to ensure the systematic annealing of sling chains at intervals of 12 months (see STORES, General, D 0011 and I 0011). Care should, however, be taken to see that a chain is not brought into use when due for annealingCare should always be taken to attach the blocks so that the back of the hook is against the pole. All hooks should be moused with "Marline".

39. Use of Crane-Lorry
The erection of poles by means of a crane-lorry is dealt with in C 3226 (when available).

40. Number of men required for erection. Pole erection should be undertaken only with an adequate number of men. In deciding upon the man-power required, the safety of the men and of the public should have first consideration.

41. Conditions for the erection of poles vary considerably, depending upon the position, accessibility and character of the site, proximity and class of highway, whether the poles have to be entirely manhandled, equipment available, weather conditions, and experience of the foremen and other men employed. It is therefore impracticable to lay down a hard and fast rule as to the number of men required for the erection of each size of pole under all conditions. Each job should be dealt with on its merits, and special consideration should be given to erection where conditions necessitate the provision of extra strength and/or precautionary measures for the prevention of accidents.

42. The minimum number of men, including the foreman but not including "watchers", to be employed for erecting poles under easy, straightforward conditions and with no mechanical aids, other than those described in this Instruction, is prescribed in Tables 1 and 2.

TABLE 1
MINIMUM NUMBER OF MEN TO BE EMPLOYED IN ERECTING SINGLE POLES

Length of pole (Ft.) Class of pole
Extra Light Light Medium Stout
16 - 2 - -
18 2 2 - -
20 2 2 - -
22 2 2 - -
24 - 3 3 -
26 - 3 3 -
28 - 3 4 4
30 - 4 4 4
32 - 4 4 5
34 - 4 4 5
36 - 4 5 6
40 - 5 5 6
45 - 5 6 7
50 - 5 * 7 8
55 - - 8 8
60 - - 8 9
65 - - 8 9
70 - - - 10
75 - - - 10

Note * - 7 men if conditions necessitate the use of a derrick.


TABLE 2
MINIMUM NUMBER OF MEN TO BE EMPLOYED IN ERECTING A-POLES

Length of pole (Ft.) Class of pole
Medium Stout
32 6 7
34 6 7
36 7 8
40 - 9
45 - 9

43. Setting
The appearance of a line depends largely on the care taken in the setting and alignment of the poles. In straight sections of line, poles should be set in a vertical position. At terminal points and angles in the line, it is advisable to set poles so as to bear slightly against the stress of the wires to allow for consolidation of the disturbed soil, which only slowly regains its original solidity. This inclination should only be sufficient to allow the pole to attain a vertical position when it is fully loaded and all settlement has ceased.

44. Comparison with the profile of the wall of a building will assist in the determination of correct pole-setting, and advantage should be taken of this facility in built-up areas, where pole alignment is of particular importance. Care should be taken to ensure that poles set on gradients are not inclined downhill.

45. Stayed poles
In setting a pole which is to be stayed on one side only, e.g. terminal and angle poles, allowance should be made for the fitting of the stay(s), which, when tightened initially, i.e. prior to the erection of the wires, will tend to increase the set. The fitting of a stay to a pole set vertically, will often provide all the set required, particularly where the line will be only partly wired during the critical period of settlement of the soil.

46. Direction of arms
Arms should face in the direction of the line, as specified in C 3551. It will generally be necessary to twist the pole upon erection, so as to place the arms in their correct position relative to the line wires, i.e. the position which provides maximum spacing of the wires. Thus, at terminal points and in straight sections of line, the arms should be at right-angles to the direction of the wires and, at angles, in the direction of a line which will bisect the angles formed by the line-wires at the pole.

47. Fig. 8 illustrates a simple method of locating .a view point (about 7yds. from the pole is usually convenient) from which, by sighting along the arms, their correct alignment relative to the direction of the line can be determined.

With a measuring tape or length of sash line, measure from the armed side of the pole equal distances A-B and A-C along the direction of the line. Then locate the point required - D - equi-distant from B and C. This can be indicated by the mid-point of a 20yd. length of sash line, the ends of which are held at B and C. The distances shown in Fig. 8 are generally suitable for pole positions in straight sections of line and at terminal points. Some increase or reduction in these distances is desirable at appreciable angles in the line, depending on the position of the view-point, outside or inside the angle.

NOTE:- Since the direction of angle and transverse stays and struts will usually be determined by sighting along the arms, it is important that the direction of the arms should be determined with especial care.

FIG. 8

48. Twisting.

  1. Poles of light weight can generally be twisted by hand without difficulty.

  2. For medium-weight poles, a pole twister or a length of rope, with a crowbar or other suitable lever, are required. To use the rope, double it back on itself and give the bight thus formed two or three turns round the pole in the direction in which the pole is to be twisted, so that the loop is in a position convenient for use of the lever. Pass the end of the lever through the loop and, as the pole is twisted, hold the rope at the other side to prevent slip.

  3. For heavy poles, pole twisters should always be used.

49. Filling in
The soil should be replaced evenly in small quantities, and thoroughly punned as the hole is filled in. The use of one shovel for filling-in is more than sufficient to keep two punners at work, and time should be allowed for the men to consolidate the soil thoroughly. Any stones removed during excavation should be packed tightly and rammed at the foot of the pole and, also, near the top of the hole, so as to provide an extended bearing surface. Rock should be wedged tightly around poles that are set in solid rock.

50. Cylindrical holes
When the pole-hole is of the cylindrical type, the space between the pole and the wall of the hole is necessarily small and, when filling-in, an ordinary punner is of little use except near the surface. The flat punner end of the digging bar should therefore be used to consolidate the soil replaced in the lower portion of the hole. Where a number of poles are being erected in cylindrical holes, the holes should be filled in to a depth of 12 in. as the poles are erected. This will ensure the stability of the poles until they are finally aligned, when the filling-in operations can, be completed.

51. Reinstatement.
Any turf removed at the commencement of excavation should be replaced neatly. The temporarily-restored surface, whether footways or carriageways, should be left in good order and kept under observation until permanent reinstatement is put in hand.

52. Numbering
Upon the completion of erection and filling-in operations, poles should be numbered in accordance with C 3161 (when available).

53. Blocking
The circumstances in which stay-blocks should be used to strengthen the foundations of single poles and prevent their deflexion from the vertical position are outlined in A 1901. Further particulars regarding the blocking of single poles are given in paras. 54 to 58. The blocking of A and H poles is dealt with in C 3251.

54. To obtain full advantage from blocking, the stayblocks should be placed in such a direction as to counteract most effectively the stresses on the pole. Thus, at terminal points, the blocks should be fitted at right-angles to the direction of the line, in accordance with C 3301 ; at intermediate points, where blocks are required to counteract transverse stresses, they should be placed longitudinally, as shown in Fig. 9. Further, care should be taken to ensure correct shaping and adequate depth of the hole, and thorough consolidation of the soil.

55. Normally, two blocks should be fitted, one at about one-third of the depth of setting below the ground line and the other on the opposite side of the pole at the extreme butt. A medium or heavy stay-block, depending on the capacity of line and/or the character of the soil, should he used for the upper block. A light stayblock will generally suffice at the butt, owing to the greater earth resistance at the lower position. Where the stresses tending to deflect, the pole will be in one direction only, or are likely to predominate in one direction, the upper block should be fitted on the side to which such stres3es will tend to pull the pole.

56. Except, in unsuitable soil, a single stayblock at about one-third of the depth of setting will generally provide all the additional support required for a light pole.

57. The pole should be cut at the butt to fit the lower block as shown in Fig. 9, but it should on no account be cut for the purpose of fitting the upper block. The cut surface should be liberally treated with " Creosote and Tar." The blocks should be secured to the pole by means of 5/8in. arm bolts, with "Washers, Galvd., No. 8" in place of the ordinary arm-bolt washers ("Washers, Galvd., No. 4").

FIG. 9. - METHOD OF BLOCKING POLES

58. In fitting the upper block, it is more convenient, to fit the bolt to the pole before the pole is erected, and leave the block to be fixed in position after the pole-hole has been filled-in to a point level with the underside of the block, i.e. 5in. below the bolt. When filling-in has been completed to this point, the bolt should be partly withdrawn and the pole-hole carefully trimmed, so that the block may be wedged tightly between the pole and solid, undisturbed earth, and, afterwards, bolted to the pole. II attached before the pole is erected, there is a distinct likelihood of the upper block obstructing setting and filling-in operations and, also, of the pole-hole being incorrectly trimmed to receive the block, thereby reducing the efficiency of the foundations.

59. Poles in unstable ground
When a pole has to be set in swampy ground or other unsuitable soils, or on a pebble beach, it is advisable to bolt a stay-block to the butt as illustrated in Fig. 9 and detailed in para. 57. Alternatively, the pole may rest on the stayblock, the latter being fastened to the end of the pole by means of "Spikes, Galvd., 9in." In very soft bog, a short pole may be bolted to the foot of the line pole and stays attached to the ends of the buried pole, as shown in Fig. 10.

FIG. 10. - BLOCKED POLE IN UNSTABLE GROUND

60. Unloading and handling poles
The unloading of poles from railway trucks, timber waggons or lorries should be done under the supervision of a foreman or other responsible officer. Chains and stanchions used for securing the poles should be removed only when there is no danger of the poles falling off. Poles should be unloaded with the greatest care, skids and check ropes (see TOOLS AND TRANSPORT, Mechanical Aids, B 1003 - when available) being used wherever practicable.

61. When skids are not used it is sometimes necessary, after lowering one end of a pole from the side or back of a vehicle, to let the other end fall to the ground. In such circumstances the pole should always be unloaded tip end first, and always where it will fall clear of obstructions such as railway metals or granite kerbs. If unloaded butt end first, the tip end vibrates on striking the ground and the pole is liable to be sprung or broken.

62. When carrying poles, the workmen should arrange themselves in the order of the height of their shoulders and each man should use the same shoulder When placing the pole on the ground, it should not be thrown off the shoulders, but should be lowered to arm level and then, tip first, to the ground.

63. Lifting heavy poles over buildings
Pole sites in positions which necessitate lifting the pole over a building should be avoided, if at all possible, because the work is dangerous and expensive. When such work is unavoidable, two derricks will be required—one in front and one at the back of the building. The height of each derrick should be greater than the height of the part of the building over which the pole is to pass. The general arrangements at each derrick are similar to those required for pole erection (see paras. 29, 31, 33, 34 and 35), but the two derricks should be stayed with " Wire, Galvd., Strand, 7/8in.", so as to increase their rigidity. The first operation is to raise the pole, in a horizontal position, to such a height that it will clear the highest part of the building. Extreme care is necessary in steadying the pole, and, at a suitable moment when the pole is suspended over the building, a man on the roof should attach the double block of the second derrick. The pole is then passed across to the second derrick and lowered gradually into position, by easing the fall of the blocks attached to the first derrick and hauling on the tackle of the second derrick. The tackle on the first derrick should not be detached from the pole until the tackle of the second derrick has taken the whole weight of the pole.

64. Stacking
Poles should always be stacked carefully, and the instructions on this subject given in C 1101 should be closely observed. Poles stacked or laid out on the road side should be placed so as not to endanger road users; the poles should be fastened together or secured to standing poles by means of wire, to prevent mischievous persons moving the poles. "Wire, Galvd., Line, 400lb." and
"Staples, Galvd., 1¾in." should generally be used to secure the poles.

65. Prevention of Accidents
The regulations for the prevention of accidents laid down in J1001 should be strictly observed by all engaged in poling operations.



 

 
BACK Home page BT/GPO Telephones Search the Site Vehicles Home Page Quick Find All Telephone Systems

Last revised: April 03, 2021

FM2